COMMON ANCESTOR 0 remove RELATIONSHIP 1+ remove RELATIONSHIP
parentbrothers & sistersn/a
grandparent1st cousinsaunts uncles nephews nieces
great1 grandparent2nd cousinsgreatAuntUncle grandNephewNiece
great2 grandparent3rd cousinsgreat1 GrandAuntUncleNephewNiece
great3 grandparent4th cousinsgreat2 GrandAuntUncleNephewNiece
great4 grandparent5th cousinsgreat3 GrandAuntUncleNephewNiece
greatx grandparentx+1th cousinsgreatx-1 GrandAuntUncleNephewNiece

Whether the relatives are once, twice, thrice, ... removed can be determined by subtracting the difference between the number of greats in their common grandparent.  For example, Javin, another web site author and I are third cousins once removed, because our common ancestor, Johann (1812), is great3 for him and great2 for me.  Three minus two is one or once removed.

    Kinship chart image:     alone     BIG     blank (circle)   •   1990 Census surnames

When considering relatives not in the same generation, use the grandparent with the fewest number of greats.  In other words, Johann is Javin's great3 grandparent but only my great great grandparent.  Using Javin as a base would make us 4th cousins - an erroneous determination.  Instead, adding one to my great2 per the table shown above arrives at our correct third cousin status.  Making determinations other than from common grandparents is probably best done via the circular chart(s).

The degree of kindred numbers, shown in blue within each cell, are Civil Law kinship references prevailing when the statutes don't govern.  For example, the ME with a degree number of 0/zero as the base point, could be a decedent with an estate going through probate. The chart shown here should not be used as a legal reference.  Check with the laws (and charts) in your own locale for the definitions governing the circumstance you encounter in need of a legal kinship determination.

KinshipCircle-Click it to see a larger version
  •   1990 USA Census surnames   •       •   guestbook   •   HomePage

Website link/location/URL: http://Kinship.Jamrent.com or http://www.Jamrent.com/trekind.htm